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James Fenimore Cooper
Cooper, James Fenimore (1789-1851), was an American novelist and social critic. He is best known for The Leather - Stocking Tales, five novels obout Natty Bumppo, a frontiersman. The character has other names in the series, including leatherstocking. In the Leather-Stocking Tales, Cooper became the first author to seriously portray American frontier scenes and characters.
In The Leather - Stocking Tales, Cooper described Natty Bumppo’s retreat from the advancing settlement of the forect. The novels introduce Natty Bomppo as a young man and follaw him to old age and death. The Leather-Stocking Tales, in the order of the hero’s life, are The Deerslayer (1841), The last of the Mohicans (1826), the Pathfinder (1840), the Pioneers (1823), and the Prairie (1827). These action – filled stories contrast two ways of life. Natty Bomppo and his brave, noble Indian friends live a life of freedom close to nature. The settlers bring civilization and social order but they also selfishly or thoughtlessly misuse the wilderness.
Coper’s conservative ideas about society are reflected in many of his writings. His works show his concern for the freedom of individuals and the rights of property owners. Cooper declared that he believed in democracy. However, he said he feared that majority rule would bring disorder and injustice. Although he was deeply patriotic, Cooper thought that the United States should be governed by a small aristocracy of cultured and public-spirited landowners.
Cooper wrote several nonfiction works criticizing American life. The best known include the essays A Letter to his Countrymen (1834) and the American Democrat (1838). He also wrote fiction about his ideals on civic leadership, including Homeward Bound (1838) and Home as Fond (1838).Cooper defends property rights in three novels called the Little-page Manuscripts. They are Satanstoe (1845), The Chainbearer (1845), and The Redskins (1846).
Cooper wrote the first American novel about the sea, The Pilot (1823). This romance has a memorable character, Long Tom Coffin, who, like Natty Bumppo, is a daring figure who lives close to nature. Cooper also wrote ofher historical tales of exciting sea chases.
Cooper was born in Burlington, N. I. He was raised in the scenic lakeside community of Cooperstown, N.Y., which was named for his father, William Cooper. The Pioneers ahd the Deerslayer are set in this lake region. Cooper served in the U.S. Navy from 1808 to 1811. He settled in upstate New York, intending to become a gentleman farmer.
Cooper wrote his first novel, Precaution, in 1820, but it received little critical praise. His next novel was The Spy (1821), a story about families durind the Rewolutionary War. Its immediate success encouraged Cooper to devote himself to writing.
Grossman, James. James Fenimore Cooper. Stanford, 1967. First published in 1949.
Iames Fenimore Cooper: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. by Wayne Fields. Prentice-Hall, 1979.
Rihge, Danald A. James Fenimore Cooper. 2 nd. ed. Twayne, 1988.
Назва: James Fenimore Cooper
Дата публікації: 2005-02-17 (1077 прочитано)